This contribution has not yet been formally edited by Britannica. Santa Anna’s defense collapsed as panicked Mexicans tried to flee the cavalry across the marshes. Native Americans (Used twice) 28. The battle of San Jacinto was the concluding military event of the Texas Revolution. It was to be a great day for Texas. Photograph of the Survivors of the Battle of San Jacinto, at a meeting of the Texas Veterans' Association at Galveston c. 1880. One version, measuring approximately 8 feet (2.4 m) by 14 feet (4.3 m), is installed in the Texas Senate chamber of the Texas State Capitol in Austin, Texas. His critics called him a coward, but Houston felt he would only get one shot at defeating the much-larger Mexican army and preferred to pick the time and place for battle. The Mexican pursuit of Houston was three-pronged, and though…. These articles have not yet undergone the rigorous in-house editing or fact-checking and styling process to which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected. Mexican President/General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna marched north with a massive army to put down the rebellion. Santa Anna attempted unsuccessfully to probe the Texan position, and there was an exchange of artillery fire. ... See how one small battle in Texas spilled over its borders to leave a mark not only on a young nation, but the world as well. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). to protect settlers from Mexican soldiers. He divided his army in three: one part went on a failed attempt to capture the provisional government, another remained to protect his supply lines, and the third, which he commanded himself, went after Houston and his army. Santa Anna was disgraced but would make yet another comeback in Mexican politics during the Pastry War against France in 1838-1839. Sherman rounded up about 60 horsemen and charged anyway. Houston avoided contact with the pursuing Mexican army until his Texas army gained strength and training. But every effort was doomed to failure. The freedom of Texas from Mexico won here led to annexation and to the Mexican-American War, resul… Panicked Mexicans tried to flee only to find themselves trapped by the river or bayou. After an eighteen-minute fight, the remaining Mexicans surrendered, but Santa Anna slipped away in a private’s uniform. Nicaragua 10 Cordobas Banknote, Year 2007 – Face and Back 10 cordobas, Nicaragua, featuring Hacienda San Jacinto, series A 2007 banknote, back. Santa Anna, on the other hand, split his force, sending some units to secure his long supply line while others sought to capture the provisional Texan government. Corrections? On the following day, April 21, Santa Anna received some 500 reinforcements under the command of General Martín Perfecto de Cos. His decisions were consistently proven wise. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. Part of the Texas Revolution of 183536, it was fought between a Mexican army led by General Antonio López de Santa Anna and the Texian force of Sam Houston. (Legend holds that Santa Anna was slow to respond to the assault because he was romantically involved with a woman when the attack unfolded, but that account is probably apocryphal.). Mexican 14. An account of the Battle of San Jacinto written by Sam Houston and sent to David G. Burnett, President of the Republic of Texas. At that moment, Houston’s artillery opened fire, and the Texan infantry charged. Why did Texans attack a Mexican fort at Goliad? Houston and his officers spoke with Santa Anna for hours before deciding on a course of action. Sam Houston’s picture is a photograph by Elwood M. Payne, of an etching made from a daguerreotype in the San Jacinto Museum of History. For the Mexicans, San Jacinto was the start of a long national nightmare that would end with the loss of not only Texas but also California, New Mexico, and much more. Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica.com with greater speed and efficiency than has traditionally been possible. Let us know. The final toll for the Texans: nine dead and 30 wounded, including Sam Houston, who had been shot in the ankle. At about 3:30, the Texans began silently marching forward, trying to get as close as possible before opening fire. During the Texan War for Independence, the Texas militia under Sam Houston launches a surprise attack against the forces of Mexican General Santa Anna along the San Jacinto River. Frontispiece “Battle of San Jacinto” is a photograph of a painting by Henry A. McArdle. In the meantime, more information about the article and the author can be found by clicking on the author’s name. He personally led the remaining 600 men after Houston. The battle was a turning point for Texas' independence from Mexico. The decisive Battle of San Jacinto resulted in Texas’ independence from Mexico. He correctly surmised that Santa Anna was worth much more alive than dead. General Sam Houston, sensing Santa Anna's mistake, engaged him on the shores of the San Jacinto River. The siege of the----- took place during the Revolutionary Era in Texas History. Meanwhile, Mexican General Santa Anna marched his army to crush the Texan rebels. As soon as the Mexicans realized an attack was coming, Houston ordered the cannons to fire (he had two of them, called the “twin sisters”) and the cavalry and infantry to charge. Citizens of the new Republic of Texas responded to the destruction of the Alamo and massacre of the unarmed Texans captured at Goliad with outrage. The United States would go on to acquire not only the Republic of Texas in 1845 but Mexican lands to the west after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War in 1848. The Texans fired at close range and rolled over the hasty Mexican breastworks. Losses: Mexican, 630 dead, 208 wounded, 730 captured; Texan, 9 dead, 30 wounded. Source(s): Osterhout, Paul, 1859-1944, List of participants in the Battle of San Jacinto, Texas (undated, but post 1836) Source Identifier: Osterhout Family Papers, MS 355, Box 4 folder 7 item 16, Woodson Research Center, Fondren Library, Rice University. What decision by Sam Houston paid off at the Battle of San Jacinto? San Jacinto Day is a day of state pride for Texans in the United States on April 21 each year. On the afternoon of April 20, as the two armies continued to skirmish and size each other up, Sidney Sherman demanded that Houston send a cavalry charge to attack the Mexicans: Houston thought this foolish. As it was, the Mexicans' crushing defeat at the Battle of San Jacinto proved decisive for Texas. The Texans, still enraged over the massacres at the Alamo and Goliad, showed little pity for the Mexicans. Manifest Destiny 13. From blades to bullets, learn about the weapons that stretched America’s borders to the Pacific Ocean, fueled America’s arrival on the world stage — and redefined our culture. Center row, third from left: Valentine Ignatius Burch of Tyler County, Texas. Meanwhile, Houston kept one step ahead of Santa Anna. Had Santa Anna not split his forces, Houston's army may well have been beaten by the Mexicans' superior numbers. They were within 200 yards (183 m) of the Mexican camp when discovered. His mounted troops rode around the Mexican flanks while the Texan battle line moved quickly and quietly directly across the open prairie. Fought along the San Jacinto River, near the site of what was to be the city of Houston, the battle ensured the success of American settlers in the Texas Revolution (War of Texas Independence). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-San-Jacinto-1836, Lone Star Junction - Battle of San Jacinto, 21 April 1836, National Park Service - American Latino Heritage - San Jacinto Battlefield La Porte, Texas, Texas State Historical Association - The Handbook of Texas Online - Battle of San Jacinto, The Civil War - The Battle of San Jacinto. The Mexican government offered settlers from the United States land at cheap prices. In either case, history would be much different today. A Texan council of war, in the meantime, voted to attack, and Houston launched his 900 Texans in a risky assault that afternoon. December 7, 2020. Lone Star Nation: the Epic Story of the Battle for Texas Independence. Today, there is a monument at the San Jacinto battlefield, not far from the city of Houston. Santa Anna believed that the Texans were beaten even though General Sam Houston still had an army of almost 900 in the field and more recruits came every day. Commanders. This was typical of Houston’s command. San Jacinto County (/ ˌ s æ n dʒ ə ˈ s ɪ n t oʊ / SAN jə-SIN-toh) is a county in the U.S. state of Texas.As of the 2010 census, its population was 26,384. In addition, Santa Anna's generals had the strength to defeat the Texans: had Santa Anna been executed, they likely would have kept fighting. Somewhat amazingly, Santa Anna's generals did as they were told and retreated out of Texas with their armies. He also signed documents recognizing the independence of Texas and ending the war. Santa Anna chased the fleeing Texans, alienating many with his policies of driving off Anglo settlers and destroying their homesteads. Santa Anna somehow evaded execution and eventually made his way back to Mexico, where he would later resume the Presidency, go back on his word, and try more than once to re-take Texas. The Mexicans did not flinch and before long, the horsemen were trapped, forcing the rest of the Texan army to briefly attack to allow them to escape. The Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, was the defining battle of the Texas Revolution. Thickly forested with oak trees and dotted with marshes, it was alien territory to the Mexicans, but not to the Texans. The Texans had just suffered two huge losses at the Alamo and Goliad and were on the run. Eighteen minutes was all it took for Houston’s troops to take control of the Mexican camp. Image: Sam Houston. The Battle of San Jacinto was an important battle in the Texas Revolution (1835-1836). Cholera 12. Center row, second from left: Valentine Burch. For the Mexicans: about 630 dead, 200 wounded and 730 captured, including Santa Anna himself, who was captured the next day as he tried to flee in civilian clothes. Today, the San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site commemorates the battle and includes the San Jacinto Monument, the world's tallest memorial column, at 570 feet (170 m). Following the fall of the Alamo and the Texan’s defeat at Goliad, Sam Houston deliberately let himself run out of territory at San Jacinto. The Battle of San Jacinto (Fred Rider Cotten Popular History Series Book 3) - Kindle edition by Pohl, James W.. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. When no attack followed in the morning, the Mexican troops relaxed even further. After the battle, many of the victorious Texans clamored for the execution of General Santa Anna. The Battle of San Jacinto refers to at least two paintings by Henry Arthur McArdle, depicting the Battle of San Jacinto. The troops under Cos were particularly tired. Houston set up camp nearby. _____ showed Indian trails to settlers who headed west, led journeys up major rivers, and discovered mountain passes that later became major routes to the West. About 500 Mexican reinforcements arrived. Every kid who has gone through elementary school in or around Houston has been to the San Jacinto Monument on a field trip (and skinned a knee going down the stairs of the Battleship Texas, the WWI and II era ship which some kids mistakenly thought helped Sam Houston win the battle of San Jacinto). "Presented for publication by … Three Mexican states joined Texas in the revolt against the dictatorship of Santa Anna. The worst part of the slaughter was at the edges of the Bayou, where fleeing Mexicans found themselves cornered. The Battle of San Jacinto – Texas History. Martín Perfecto de Cos April, the Mexican pursuit of Houston army of Texans retreated eastward following fall. 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